Strengthening the intellectual foundation for our profession of arms.
April 20th, 2017 by James Kingham
Army attack aviation is a niche capability possessed by a minority of global militaries. As a capability which had its genesis in the Vietnam War, and received its validation in the deserts of Kuwait and Southern Iraq in 1991, Army attack aviation has established and consolidated its role as an essential element in the combined arms team across the spectrum of military operations. Doctrinally, the role of Army attack aviation has traditionally been limited to the tactical and operational sphere, but does attack aviation have a strategic role to play? By applying an Effects-Based Operations (EBO) methodology to Army attack aviation, we can explore the significant strategic influence of which it is capable.
Effects-based operations was the foundation of the US led Desert Storm air campaign. The premise of the doctrine is an attempt to conceptualise the second and third order effects stemming from first order actions. By selecting an end state – such as the disruption of an enemy strategic command and control functions – planners can then analyse the tactical means at their disposal in which to achieve this goal. By employing the EBO approach, US planners in the First Gulf War shifted from a traditional force-on-force posture which sought the physical destruction of the enemy, to a more precise application of force which emphasised precision and stealth with reduced resources and casualties. By applying EBO, Army attack aviation’s suitability to achieving strategic effects becomes evident.
A shortlist of potential strategic effects is provided by USAF officer William Eldridge in his dissertation Achieving Strategic Effects with Army Attack Aviation, which postulated strategic targets which were consistent with the Desert Storm and Second Iraq conflicts. A non-exhaustive list of these targets includes power systems, C4I nodes, concentrations of uncommitted forces, strategic transportation assets and key manufacturing facilitates. The suitability of affecting these targets was satisfied with the employment of AGM-114 Hellfire missile equipped Army attack aircraft; and by analysing the second order effects of destroying these targets, tangible strategic contributions to manoeuvre, logistic and information superiority were identified. By applying a similar process to the contemporary operating environment, it is possible to update the strategic effects achievable with Army attack aviation. This process is simplified by the fact that AGM-114 wielding aircraft continue to form the centrepiece of modern attack capabilities around the globe.
The contemporary operating environment has a preponderance for non-state or quasi-state actors, rather than the more clearly defined battlelines of Desert Storm and The Iraq invasion. The targets offered by these actors are justifiably different, yet the option to garner strategic outcomes by their destruction is enduring. Key leadership, transportation systems, fuel storage and instrumental infrastructure are still requirements of non-state military actors, albeit in reduced quantities. As they exist in smaller scales, arguably the destruction of these strategic targets with Army attack aviation can yield greater strategic benefits for employing commanders. Since Eldridge penned his dissertation, the role of drones in Army attack aviation has increased significantly, especially in the United States. Complementing these advances has been the establishment of a new doctrine, Manned, Unmanned Teaming (MUM-T), which has seen the high situational awareness of manned aircraft complemented by the increased endurance of unmanned vehicles. The employment of MUM-T significantly enhances Army attack aviation’s ability to achieve strategic effects.
So far, this post has focused primarily on strategic outcomes through a kinetic EBO application. By applying EBO to friendly force protection and defensive operations, further strategic effects of Army attack aviation may be discerned. Friendly force key leaders, vital assets and high value targets, such as aeromedical evacuation aircraft, are naturally strategic targets for the non-state and quasi-state actors present in the contemporary operating environment. Army attack aviation’s ability to contribute to the security of the aforementioned assets are significant. With superior sensors, rapid responses and high situational awareness, attack aviation can achieve strategic effects by denying enemies the opportunity to accomplish their own EBO methodology. As with the offensive kinetic examples, the effects can be enhanced through the employment of MUM-T.
Like all military capabilities, Army attack aviation has its unique limitations which are worth mentioning, but which also must be balanced against its unique strengths. Strike range and survivability against specific ground based air defence platforms, when compared to faster fixed-wing aircraft, are identified by USAF officer Andrew Nocks as potential weaknesses of attack aviation. However they are well counterbalanced by its unmatched ability to locate hidden targets and provide real time battle damage assessments. Ultimately it is the ability to employ the AGM-114 Hellfire, and it variants, which provides the key to Army aviation’s utility. The precision and versatility of the weapon system is a truly unique capability which affords distinctive weaponeering opportunities compared to fixed-wing or ground based alternatives.
Army attack aviation has long been synonymous with an effective tactical element in combined arms teams. By analysing the characteristics which make attack aviation a successful tactical capability, and employing an EBO methodology to the contemporary environment, strategic opportunities become apparent. Armed with a unique weapon system and the same characteristics which make attack aviation a tactical necessity, strategic outcomes can be identified as an underutilised potential of Army attack aviation.
About the author
James Kingham is a Troop Commander posted to the 1st Aviation Regiment.
 Eldridge. W, Achieving Strategic Effects with Army Attack Aviation, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2003. p. iii
 Deptula. D, Effects-based Operations: Change in the Nature of Warfare, Aerospace Education Foundation, Virginia, 2001. p. 7
 ibid. p. 8
 Eldridge. W, Achieving Strategic Effects with Army Attack Aviation. p. 43
 Schnappauf. M, ‘Now Hear This – It’s Time to Push Rotary Manned-Unmanned Teaming’, in Proceedings Magazine, 2016.
 Eldridge. W, Achieving Strategic Effects with Army Attack Aviation. p. 40
 ibid. p. 41
Deptula. D, Effects-based Operations: Change in the Nature of Warfare, Aerospace Education Foundation, Virginia, 2001.
Eldridge. W, Achieving Strategic Effects with Army Attack Aviation, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2003.
Schnappauf. M, ‘Now Hear This – It’s Time to Push Rotary Manned-Unmanned Teaming’, in Proceedings Magazine, 2016.
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